FCP X: Create a Picture-in-Picture Effect
A picture-in-picture effect is a very popular effect in that it allows us to see two images at once. This tutorial shows you how to create this in FCP X.
Here’s the end result – just so you know where I’m going with this.
Whenever you want two, or more, images displayed on the screen at the same time, you need to stack them vertically. In this example, Dr. Cerf’s talking head video is in the primary storyline, while the video of the spinning earth is connected above.
NOTE: Stacking order makes a difference. Lower clips are in the background, while higher clips are in the foreground. And, by default, all clips are 100% full-screen and 100% opaque.
Except… in this case, Dr. Cerf’s video is 4:3, while the earth is 16:9. Visually, this is a train wreck.
Select the higher clip – in this case, it’s the spinning Earth.
Then, you can either use the Transform controls in the Inspector, or the on-screen controls in the Viewer. In this example, I’ll use the on-screen controls.
With the Earth clip selected, click the rectangular Transform button in the lower left corner of the Viewer. The icon immediately turns blue.
At the same time, eight blue dots appear around the edge of the selected image.
Grab a dot along the edge to scale the image asymmetrically.
Drag a dot at a corner to scale the image symmetrically from the center of the image. Hold the Option key down and see how this changes how you scale the image — it scales from the opposite corner.
Hold the Shift key down, drag, and watch what happens.
Scale the image until it is essentially the size you want.
Click anywhere inside the image, and drag it into position.
Whenever you work with graphics in video, you need to keep both Action Safe and Title Safe in mind. To display these zones, click the switch in the top right corner of the Viewer and select Show Action/Title Safe Zones.
For broadcast, all essential text and logos needs to be contained inside the inner rectangle (Title Safe), while all essential action needs to be contained inside the outer rectangle (Action Safe). This is due to the nature of CRT-based TV sets — which still constitute the majority of how America watches TV.
However, for the web, we don’t have the same technical constraints, but we all have a lifetime of watching video graphics that take these boundaries into account. So my recommendation, when creating video for the web, is to confine all essential text, graphics, and logos inside the outer rectangle (Action Safe). It looks good and has a comfortable, well-designed feeling.
For this example, I’m going to position the image in the top right corner of Action Safe and click “Done.” This turns off the on-screen controls and locks the image into place.
Ta-DAH! Our effect is done. However, there are a variety of other adjustments we can make. Here are four of them:
1. Select the top clip, type Command+4 to open the Inspector (if it is closed), then click the blue Show button to reveal the Transform category of built-in effects.
Set the scale of the image to, say 40%. Using the Inspector allows you to be very precise in scaling one, or more, images to exactly the same size and position.
2. Select the leading edge of the effect and type Command+T — this applies the default cross-dissolve to the start of the clip.
3. Replace the cross-dissolve with a Slide (Effects Browser > Movements > Slide). Select the slide, then change the direction of the slide in the Inspector so it flies in from the right edge.
4. Let’s say you want to get rid of the space to the right of the Earth. The easiest way to do this is cropping. Select the Earth clip, then click the Crop icon in the lower left corner of the Viewer. The selected image has blue bars along the edges and corners.
Drag an edge, or corner, until the image is cropped the way you like. Click “Done,” which turns off the on-screen controls and locks the image.
Picture-in-picture is a great effect – and you are not limited to just one image, you can have has many pictures on screen as you can fit in the frame. Experiment with this and discover what works best for you!
(By the way, thanks to Dr. Vint Cerf, Alcatel/Lucent, and Pond5 for permission to use these images.)